Principalities/Princes - derived from Latin princeps (sing.) and principates (pl.). The Greek of the Septuagint Old Testament and of the New Testament is arche (sing.) and archai (pl.), from archomai, beginning or commencement. The implication is that the arche or prince is the principle of order, the ruler of a principality. The Hebrew word used is sar, and carries the same meaning.
prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief
princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.
But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and there is none that holdeth with me in these things, but
Michael your prince.
And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great
prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.
For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor
principalities, nor present things, nor future things, nor powers,
so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the
principalities and authorities in the heavens.
For our struggle is not with flesh and blood but with the
principalities, with the powers, with the world rulers of this present darkness, with the evil spirits in the heavens.
For in him were created all things in heaven and on earth,
the visible and the invisible,
whether thrones or dominions or
principalities or powers;
all things were created through him and for him.
principalities and the powers, he made a public spectacle of them, leading them away in triumph by it.
 In the third year of Cyrus, king of Persia, a revelation was given to Daniel, who had been named
Belteshazzar. The revelation was certain: a great war; he understood it from the vision.  In those days, I, Daniel, mourned three full weeks.  I ate no savory food, I took no meat or wine, and I did not anoint myself at all until the end of the three weeks.
 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month I was on the bank of the great river, the Tigris.  As I looked up, I saw a man dressed in linen with a belt of fine gold around his waist.  His body was like
chrysolite, his face shown like lightning, his eyes were like fiery torches, his arms and feet looked like burnished bronze, and his voice sounded like the roar of a multitude.  I alone, Daniel, saw the vision; but great fear seized the men who were with me; they fled and hid themselves, although they did not see the vision.  So I was left alone, seeing this great vision. No strength remained in me; I turned the color of death and was powerless.  When I heard the sound of his voice, I fell face forward in a faint.
 But then a hand touched me, raising me to my hands and knees.  "Daniel, beloved," he said to me, "understand the words which I am speaking to you; stand up, for my mission now is to you." When he said this to me, I stood up trembling.  "Fear not, Daniel," he continued; "from the first day you made up your mind to acquire understanding and humble yourself before God, your prayer was heard. Because of it I started out,  but the prince of the kingdom of Persia stood in my way for twenty-one days, until finally Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me. I left him there with the prince of the kings of Persia,  and came to make you understand what shall happen to your people in the days to come; for there is yet a vision concerning those days."
 While he was speaking thus to me, I fell forward and kept silent.  Then something like a man's hand touched my lips; I opened my mouth and said to the one facing me, "My lord, I was seized with pangs at the vision and I was powerless.  How can my lord's servant speak with you, my lord? For now no strength or even breath is left in me."  The one who looked like a man touched me again and strengthened me, saying,  "Fear not, beloved, you are safe; take courage and be strong."  When he spoke to me, I grew strong and said, "Speak, my lord, for you have strengthened me." "Do you know," he asked, "why I have come to you? Soon I must fight the prince of Persia again. When I leave, the prince of Greece will come;  but I shall tell you what is written in the truthful book. No one supports me against all these except Michael, your prince,
[11:1] standing as a reinforcement and a bulwark for me.
 "At that time there shall arise
Michael, the great prince,
guardian of your people;
It shall be a time unsurpassed in distress
since nations began until that time.
At that time your people shall escape,
everyone who is found written in the book.
 Many of those who sleep
in the dust of the earth shall awake;
some shall live forever,
others shall be an everlasting horror and disgrace.
 But the wise shall shine brightly
like the splendor of the firmament,
And those who lead the many to justice
shall be like the stars forever.
 "As for you, Daniel, keep secret the message and seal the book until the end time; many shall fall away and evil shall increase."
 I, Daniel, looked and saw two others, one standing on either bank of the river.  One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was upstream, "How long shall it be to the end of these appalling things?"  The man clothed in linen, who was upstream, lifted his right and left hands to heaven; and I heard him swear by him who lives forever that it should be for a year, two years, a half-year; and that, when the power of the destroyer of the holy people was brought to an end, all these things should end.  I heard, but I did not understand; so I asked, "My lord, what follows this?"  "Go, Daniel," he said, "because the words are to be kept secret and sealed until the end time.  Many shall be refined, purified, and tested, but the wicked shall prove wicked; none of them shall have understanding, but the wise shall have it.  From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the horrible abomination is set up, there shall be one thousand two hundred and ninety days.  Blessed is the man who has patience and perseveres until the one thousand three hundred and thirty-five days.  Go, take your rest, you shall rise for your reward at the end of days."
 Hence, now there is no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.  For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has freed you from the law of sin and death.  For what the law, weakened by the flesh, was powerless to do, this God has done: by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for the sake of sin, he condemned sin in the flesh,  so that the righteous decree of the law might be fulfilled in us, who live not according to the flesh but according to the spirit.  For those who live according to the flesh are concerned with the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the spirit with the things of the spirit.  The concern of the flesh is death, but the concern of the spirit is life and peace.  For the concern of the flesh is hostility toward God; it does not submit to the law of God, nor can it;  and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.  But you are not in the flesh; on the contrary, you are in the spirit, if only the Spirit of God dwells in you. Whoever does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him.  But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the spirit is alive because of righteousness.  If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also, through his Spirit that dwells in you.  Consequently, brothers, we are not debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.  For if you live according to the flesh, you will die, but if by the spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
 For those who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God.  For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you received a spirit of adoption, through which we cry, "Abba, Father!"  The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God,  and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if only we suffer with him so that we may also be glorified with him.
 I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing compared with the glory to be revealed for us.  For creation awaits with eager expectation the revelation of the children of God;  for creation was made subject to futility, not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it, in hope  that creation itself would be set free from slavery to corruption and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God.  We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now;  and not only that, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, we also groan within ourselves as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies.  For in hope we were saved. Now hope that sees for itself is not hope. For who hopes for what one sees?  But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance.
 In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit itself intercedes with inexpressible
groanings.  And the one who searches hearts knows what is the intention of the Spirit, because it intercedes for the holy ones according to God's will.
 We know that all things work for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose.  For those he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, so that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.  And those he predestined he also called; and those he called he also justified; and those he justified he also glorified.
 What then shall we say to this? If God is for us, who can be against us?  He who did not spare his own Son but handed him over for us all, how will he not also give us everything else along with him?  Who will bring a charge against God's chosen ones? It is God who acquits us.  Who will condemn? It is Christ (Jesus) who died, rather, was raised, who also is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us.  What will separate us from the love of Christ? Will anguish, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or the sword?  As it is written:
"For your sake we are being slain all the day;
we are looked upon as sheep to be slaughtered."
 No, in all these things we conquer overwhelmingly through him who loved us.  For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor present things, nor future things, nor powers,  nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord.
 Because of this, I, Paul, a prisoner of Christ (Jesus) for you Gentiles--  if, as I suppose, you have heard of the stewardship of God's grace that was given to me for your benefit,  (namely, that) the mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I have written briefly earlier.  When you read this you can understand my insight into the mystery of Christ,  which was not made known to human beings in other generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit,  that the Gentiles are coheirs, members of the same body, and copartners in the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel.
 Of this I became a minister by the gift of God's grace that was granted me in accord with the exercise of his power.  To me, the very least of all the holy ones, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the inscrutable riches of Christ,  and to bring to light (for all) what is the plan of the mystery hidden from ages past in God who created all things,  so that the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known through the church to the principalities and authorities in the heavens.  This was according to the eternal purpose that he accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord,  in whom we have boldness of speech and confidence of access through faith in him.  So I ask you not to lose heart over my afflictions for you; this is your glory.
 Children, obey your parents (in the Lord), for this is right.  "Honor your father and mother." This is the first commandment with a promise,  "that it may go well with you and that you may have a long life on earth."  Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up with the training and instruction of the Lord.
 Slaves, be obedient to your human masters with fear and trembling, in sincerity of heart, as to Christ,  not only when being watched, as currying favor, but as slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart,  willingly serving the Lord and not human beings,  knowing that each will be requited from the Lord for whatever good he does, whether he is slave or free.  Masters, act in the same way toward them, and stop bullying, knowing that both they and you have a Master in heaven and that with him there is no partiality.
 Finally, draw your strength from the Lord and from his mighty power.  Put on the armor of God so that you may be able to stand firm against the tactics of the devil.  For our struggle is not with flesh and blood but with the principalities, with the powers, with the world rulers of this present darkness, with the evil spirits in the heavens.  Therefore, put on the armor of God, that you may be able to resist on the evil day and, having done everything, to hold your ground.  So stand fast with your loins girded in truth, clothed with righteousness as a breastplate,  and your feet shod in readiness for the gospel of peace.  In all circumstances, hold faith as a shield, to quench all (the) flaming arrows of the evil one.  And take the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God.
 With all prayer and supplication, pray at every opportunity in the Spirit. To that end, be watchful with all perseverance and supplication for all the holy ones  and also for me, that speech may be given me to open my mouth, to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel  for which I am an ambassador in chains, so that I may have the courage to speak as I must.
 So that you also may have news of me and of what I am doing,
Tychicus, my beloved brother and trustworthy minister in the Lord, will tell you everything.  I am sending him to you for this very purpose, so that you may know about us and that he may encourage your hearts.
 Peace be to the brothers, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.  Grace be with all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in immortality.
 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,  to the holy ones and faithful brothers in Christ in
Colossae: grace to you and peace from God our Father.
 We always give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you,  for we have heard of your faith in Christ Jesus and the love that you have for all the holy ones  because of the hope reserved for you in heaven. Of this you have already heard through the word of truth, the gospel,  that has come to you. Just as in the whole world it is bearing fruit and growing, so also among you, from the day you heard it and came to know the grace of God in truth,  as you learned it from Epaphras our beloved fellow slave, who is a trustworthy minister of Christ on your behalf  and who also told us of your love in the Spirit.
 Therefore, from the day we heard this, we do not cease praying for you and asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will through all spiritual wisdom and understanding  to live in a manner worthy of the Lord, so as to be fully pleasing, in every good work bearing fruit and growing in the knowledge of God,  strengthened with every power, in accord with his glorious might, for all endurance and patience, with joy  giving thanks to the Father, who has made you fit to share in the inheritance of the holy ones in light.  He delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son,  in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.
 He is the image of the invisible God,
the firstborn of all creation.
 For in him were created all things in heaven and on earth,
the visible and the invisible,
whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers;
all things were created through him and for him.
 He is before all things,
and in him all things hold together.
 He is the head of the body, the church.
He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead,
that in all things he himself might be preeminent.
 For in him all the fullness was pleased to dwell,
 and through him to reconcile all things for him,
making peace by the blood of his cross
(through him), whether those on earth or those in heaven.
 And you who once were alienated and hostile in mind because of evil deeds  he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through his death, to present you holy, without blemish, and irreproachable before him,  provided that you persevere in the faith, firmly grounded, stable, and not shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard, which has been preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, am a minister.
 Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of his body, which is the church,  of which I am a minister in accordance with God's stewardship given to me to bring to completion for you the word of God,  the mystery hidden from ages and from generations past. But now it has been manifested to his holy ones,  to whom God chose to make known the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; it is Christ in you, the hope for glory.  It is he whom we proclaim, admonishing everyone and teaching everyone with all wisdom, that we may present everyone perfect in Christ.  For this I labor and struggle, in accord with the exercise of his power working within me.
 For I want you to know how great a struggle I am having for you and for those in Laodicea and all who have not seen me face to face,  that their hearts may be encouraged as they are brought together in love, to have all the richness of fully assured understanding, for the knowledge of the mystery of God, Christ,  in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
 I say this so that no one may deceive you by specious arguments.  For even if I am absent in the flesh, yet I am with you in spirit, rejoicing as I observe your good order and the firmness of your faith in Christ.  So, as you received Christ Jesus the Lord, walk in him,  rooted in him and built upon him and established in the faith as you were taught, abounding in thanksgiving.  See to it that no one captivate you with an empty, seductive philosophy according to human tradition, according to the elemental powers of the world and not according to Christ.
 For in him dwells the whole fullness of the deity bodily,  and you share in this fullness in him, who is the head of every principality and power.  In him you were also circumcised with a circumcision not administered by hand, by stripping off the carnal body, with the circumcision of Christ.  You were buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead.  And even when you were dead (in) transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, he brought you to life along with him, having forgiven us all our transgressions;  obliterating the bond against us, with its legal claims, which was opposed to us, he also removed it from our midst, nailing it to the cross;  despoiling the principalities and the powers, he made a public spectacle of them, leading them away in triumph by it.
 Let no one, then, pass judgment on you in matters of food and drink or with regard to a festival or new moon or
sabbath.  These are shadows of things to come; the reality belongs to Christ.  Let no one disqualify you, delighting in self-abasement and worship of angels, taking his stand on visions, inflated without reason by his fleshly mind,  and not holding closely to the head, from whom the whole body, supported and held together by its ligaments and bonds, achieves the growth that comes from God.
 If you died with Christ to the elemental powers of the world, why do you submit to regulations as if you were still living in the world?  "Do not handle! Do not taste! Do not touch!"  These are all things destined to perish with use; they accord with human precepts and teachings.  While they have a semblance of wisdom in rigor of devotion and self-abasement (and) severity to the body, they are of no value against gratification of the flesh.